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Total Population
Hong Kong’s total population is expected to grow from 7.34 million in 2016 to 8.22 million in around 2043 at a moderate growth of 0.4% per annum on average. Then the population will decline to 7.72 million in 2066 at an average annual rate of 0.3%. Decline in population is a consequence of the combined effect of a low fertility and rapid ageing.
2017
(Excluding FDHs) (Including FDHs)
Total Population 7.07
million
7.39
million
Sex ratio 921 849
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2006
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(Excluding FDHs) (Including FDHs)
Total Population 6.63
million
6.86
million
Sex ratio 971 912
*
Foreign Domestic Helpers: FDHs
Sex ratio: number of males per 1000 females
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Change in Population
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The change in population is attributed to three factors, namely, births, deaths and net movement of Hong Kong residents.  In 2017, The Hong Kong population was 7.39 million, an increase of 52 900 or 0.7% from 7.34 million in 2016.  The natural increase of the population from 2016 to 2017 amounted to 14 300 people, obtained by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births.  Over the same period, there was a net movement (i.e. inflow less outflow) of 38 600 Hong Kong residents.  Births and inflow of One-way Permit holders (OWPHs) were important factors of the overall population increase.  The number of births from 2016 to 2017 was 59 600 and the inflow of OWPHs was 55 700.  There were 45 300 deaths during the period, offsetting part of the increase.
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Total Fertility Rate
Hong Kong’s total fertility rate (TFR) has been lower than the replacement level of 2.1 (i.e. each female should give birth to 2.1 children to maintain the population level) for more than 3 decades.  It has remained between 0.9 and 1.3 since 1990s.  Other developed economies in Asia such as Japan, Singapore and South Korea and in the West such as Spain, Switzerland and Italy are also facing the problem of low fertility rates.
Hong Kong
South Korea
Singapore
Japan
France
Denmark
Spain
Italy
Sweden
Switzerland
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Life Expectancy at Birth
The life expectancies at birth for male and female have steadily increased during the past decades, from 74.1 years for males and 79.4 years for females in 1986 to 81.3 years and 87.3 years respectively in 2016.  It is projected that the figures will continue to increase to 87.1 years for male and 93.1 for female in 2066.
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Age Structure
Our population is ageing, and ageing fast. The number of elderly persons aged 65 and over is projected to more than double in the coming 20 years. The proportion of elderly people within total population continues to increase while that of younger people is declining. Hong Kong will experience an inverted population pyramid.
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Labour Force
An ageing population will lower our labour force participation rate (LFPR)
(i.e. the proportion of the labour force within the total population aged 15 or above).
Our labour force is expected to reach a plateau in 2019 to 2022 at 3.67 million to 3.68 million and then decline to 3.13 million by 2066 where remaining relatively stable during the period of 2031-2038. The LFPR will drop from 59.2% in 2016 to 49.6% in 2066.
Year Total Labour Force Participation Rate
2017 3.64 million 59.3%
2021 3.68 million 58.6%
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3.37 million 59.9%
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Actual Figures
Projected Figures (2016 based)
Year
1. Total Population ('000) (mid-year)
  Including foreign domestic helpers
  excluding foreign domestic helpers
  Annual growth (%)
  Average annual growth rate over the past 5 years (%) *
2. Age Structure (as % of population)
  Aged 0-14 (%)
  Aged 15-64 (%)
  Aged 65 or above (%)
3. Median age
4. Demographic dependency ratio #
  Elderly #
  Child #
5. Total fertility rate ^
6. Life Expectancy at Birth ¤
  Male
  Female
7. Labour force ('000)
  Annual growth (%)
  Average annual growth rate over the past 5 years (%)
8. Labour force participation rate (%) @
  Total
  Male
  Female
9. Economic dependency ratio ~
2006 2016 2017
2021 2026 2036 2043
(peak
population)
2046 2056 2066
                       
6 857.1 7 336.6   7 389.5   7 608.4 7 825.2 8 141.7 8 218.5 8 207.2 8 004.0 7 723.2
6 629.4 7 014.8   7 066.9   7 255.0 7 422.1 7 632.8 7 645.6 7 613.8 7 376.5 7 084.1
0.6 0.6   0.7   --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
0.4 0.7   0.7   0.7 0.6 0.4 0.1 § -0.3 -0.4
                       
13.7 11.3   11.4   12.0 11.3 9.4 8.6 8.6 8.9 8.5
73.9 72.8   72.1   68.9 65.4 61.5 60.3 59.7 57.9 58.0
12.4 15.9   16.5   19.1 23.3 29.1 31.1 31.6 33.2 33.6
39.6 43.4   44.0   45.0 46.3 48.9 50.4 50.9 50.2 51.7
354 373   387   451 529 626 659 674 727 724
168 218   229   277 357 474 516 529 573 579
185 155   158   174 173 152 143 145 153 146
984 1 205   NA   1 176 1 175 1 134 1 129 1 138 1 160 1 166
                       
79.4 81.3   NA   82.2 83.1 84.4 85.1 85.4 86.3 87.1
85.5 87.3   NA   88.2 89.1 90.4 91.1 91.4 92.2 93.1
3 370.1 3 623.5   3 643.3   3 677.6 3 587.3 3 494.5 3 456.2 3 420.6 3 245.1 3 126.2
1.0 §   ---   --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
--- ---   0.7   0.3 -0.5 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.6 -0.3
                       
59.9 59.2   59.3   58.6 55.5 51.7 50.8 50.6 49.7 49.6
70.9 68.6   68.7   67.4 63.4 59 58.7 58.8 58.5 58.1
49.3 50.7   50.8   50.9 48.7 45.6 44.4 43.9 42.8 42.9
949 919   917    953 1 047 1 153 1 173 1 185 1 231 1 226

Notes for Table

1. Source: Census and Statistics Department.
2. Projected figures based on 2016-based population and labour force projections.
3. Demographic data for year 2017 are provisional figures while labour force data are projected figures.
4. Figures may not add up to total due to rounding.
5. Excluding foreign domestic helpers unless otherwise specified.
6. (*)The average annual growth rates over the past 5 years for 2006, 2016 and 2017 refer to the periods mid-2001 to mid-2006, mid-2011 to mid-2016 and mid-2012 to mid-2017 respectively. The average annual growth rates over the past 5 years for 2021, 2026, 2036, 2043, 2046, 2056 and 2066 refer to the periods mid-2016 to mid-2021, mid-2021 to mid-2026, mid-2031 to mid-2036, mid-2038 to mid-2043, mid-2041 to mid-2046, mid-2051 to mid-2056, and mid-2061 to mid-2066 respectively.
7. (§) Within ±0.05%.
8. (#) Demographic dependency ratio is the sum of child and elderly dependency ratios.
Child dependency ratio refers to the number of persons aged under 15 per 1 000 persons aged between 15 and 64.
Elderly dependency ratio refers to the number of persons aged 65 or over per 1 000 persons aged between 15 and 64.
9. (^) Refers to the average number of births during the lifetime per 1 000 females.
10. (NA) Not yet available.
11. (¤) Refers to the number of years of life that a person born in a given year is expected to live if he/she was subject to the prevalent mortality conditions as reflected by the set of age-sex specific mortality rates for that year. The figures include foreign domestic helpers.
12. (@) Refers to the proportion of labour force in total land-based non-institutional population aged 15 or over.
13. (~) Refers to the number of economically inactive persons per 1 000 economically active persons.


Notes for Infographics

1. Source: Census and Statistics Department unless otherwise stated.
2. For easy understanding, the above data on population projection are presented as infographics. For data in machine-readable format, please refer to the website of the Census and Statistics Department (https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/sp190.jsp?productCode=B1120015).
3. Data of total fertility rate for other countries from official websites of their statistics departments.
4. Projected figures based on 2016-based population and labour force projections.
5. Demographic data for year 2017 are provisional figures while labour force data are projected figures.
6. Figures may not add up to total due to rounding.
7. (#) Provisional figures.
8. (^) Figure covers Metropolitan France only.
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